Outcomes of landscape change

Planning for the future requires a clear understanding of the drivers and outcomes of landscape change. Understanding how change affects different values in the landscape (such as wildlife, native plants, ecosystem services, aesthetics, and human communities) is necessary to design effective and enduring solutions.

We recognise different types of landscape change that differ in their drivers and effects on natural systems and people. We have placed these into three categories.


Land-use change that results in:

  • conversion of one land-cover type to another (e.g. conversion of native vegetation to housing), or
  • dramatic shift in land-use intensity (e.g. agricultural intensification, post-agricultural land abandonment).
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Natural or human-caused processes that intentionally or inadvertently modify the environment, such as:, grazing by stock, floods, and invasive plants and animals.

  • fire (bushfires, cultural fire and planned burning),
  • grazing by livestock, feral animals and native animals,
  • invasive plants and animals,
  • artificial lighting and noise, and
  • floods.
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Deliberate actions or changes in land management to restore natural ecosystems; such as revegetation in cleared farmland, or restoring environmental flows to rivers and wetlands.

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