Dr Emiko S

Dr Emiko S Kashima

Associate Professor , Honours Coordinator

College of Science, Health and Engineering

School of Psychology and Public Health

Department of Psychology and Counselling

George Singer Building, Room 459, Melbourne (Bundoora)


BA SHU NE., PhD Illinois.



Membership of professional associations

Asian Association of Social Psychology (President); Association for Psychological Science (Fellow), International Academy for Intercultural Research (Fellow), Australasian Society for Social & Affective Neuroscience (AS4SAN), International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP).

Area of study


Brief profile

Emi Kashima's research interests broadly concern cultural adaptation, and she takes two main approaches in her research. The first approach focuses on cross-cultural adaptation of immigrants and sojourners. When crossing the boundaries of culture people are required to learn novel cultural norms in order to build new social relations and engage in the activities in the new communities. How do newcomers learn the complex cultural norms and rules rapidly, and even without a teacher or a guidebook to aid them? Who are more flexible than others and why? How does social networks developed in the new society facilitate or hinder culture learning? These questions are investigated by using survey and experimental methods.

The second approach concerns psychological threat reaction. When exposed to mild threats such as thinking about own limitations and own mortality, individuals engage in implicit self-regulatory processes to cope with the impacts of threats. By using behavioural, cognitive, and neuroscience methods, her research clarifies the roles of various psychological and sociocultural factors in threat regulation, such as shared cultural meanings, mindset, language use, and social ties.

Research interests

Social psychology

- Culture, Psychological Threat, Acculturation, Cultural Neuroscience

Teaching units

PSY1CFP: Clinical Foundations of Psychological Science

PSY2SOC: Social Psychology

PSY3CCG: Psychology of Culture, Communities, and Global Citizenship

PSY4HNA: Psychology Honours

Recent publications

Research on Threats 

Plusnin, N., Pepping, C. A., & Kashima, E. S. (in press). The role of close relationships in terror management: A systematic review and research agenda. Personality and Social Psychology Review.

Yanagisawa, K., Kashima, E., Moriya, H., Masui, K., Furutani, K., Yoshida, H., Ura, M., & Nomura, M. (2017). Tolerating dissimilar other when primed with death: Neural evidence of self-control engaged by interdependent people in Japan. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12(6), 910-917. DOI: 10.1093/scan/nsx012

Yanagisawa, K., Abe, N., Kashima, E. S., & Nomura, M. (2016). Self-esteem modulates amygdala-VLPFC connectivity in response to mortality threats. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145 (3), 273-283. doi.org/10.1037/xge0000121

Kashima, E. S., Beatson, R., Branchflower, S., Kaufmann, L., & Marques, M. D. (2014).  Mortality salience and cultural cringe: The Australian way of responding to thoughts of death. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(10), 1534-1548. doi:10.1177/0022022114543521

Gelfand, M. J., Raver, J. L., Nishii, L., Leslie, L. M., Lun, J., Lim, B. C., Duan, L., Almaliach, A., Ang, S., Arnadottir, J., Aycan, Z., Boehnke, K., Boski1, P., Cabecinhas, R., Chan, D., Chhokar, J., D’Amato, A., Ferrer, M., Fischlmayr, I. C., Fischer, R., Fülöp, M., Georgas, J., Kashima, E. S., Kashima, Y., Kim, K., Lempereur, A., Marquez, P., Othman, Z., Overlaet, B., Panagiotopoulou, P., Peltzer, K., Perez-Florizno, L. R., Ponomarenko, L., Realo, A., Schei, V., Schmitt, M., Smith, P. B., Soomro, N., Szabo, E., Taveesin, N., Toyama, M., Van de Vliert, E., Vohra, N., Ward, C., Yamaguchi, S. (2011). Differences between tight and loose cultures. Science, 332(6033), 1100-1104. DOI: 10.1126/science.1197754

Kashima, E. S. (2010). Culture and terror management: What is “culture” in cultural psychology and Terror Management Theory? Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 164-173.

Kashima, E. S. (2008). The psychological process of coping with threat and its cultural maintenance function. In R. M. Sorrentino & S. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition across Cultures (pp. 443-469). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Research on Acculturation

Du Plooy, D. R., Lyons, A., & Kashima, E. S. (in press). Predictors of flourishing and psychological distress among migrants to Australia: A dual continuum approach. Journal of Happiness Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-018-9961-7

Buchanan, Z., E., Abu-Rayya, H. M., Kashima, E. S., Paxton, S. J., & Sam, D. L. (2018). Perceived discrimination, language proficiencies, and adaptation: Comparisons between refugee and non-refugee immigrant youth in Australia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.10.006

Kashima, E. S., Greiner, T., Sadewo, G., Ampuni, S., Helou, L., Nguyen, V. A., Lam, B. C. P., & Kaspar, K. (2017). Open- and closed-mindedness in cross-cultural adaptation: The roles of mindfulness and need for cognitive closure. Submitted to International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 59, 31-42. 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.05.001

Buchanan, Z. E., Abu-Rayya, H. M., Kashima, E. S., & Paxton, S. J. (2017). The interconnection between acculturation and subjective and social wellbeing among refugee youth in Australia. Journal of Refugee Studies. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/few040

Kashima, E. S., & Sadewo, G. R. P. (2016). Need for cognitive closure and acculturation of international students: Recent findings and implications. In D. Jindal-Snape & B. Rienties (Eds.), Multi-dimensional transitions of international students to higher education. EARLI New perspective on learning and instruction series (pp. 37-52). Oxon, UK: Routledge.

Kashima, E. S., Kent, S., & Kashima, Y. (2015). Life satisfaction in the new country: A multilevel longitudinal analysis of effects of culture and 5-HTT allele frequency distribution in country of origin. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 10(1), 50-54. Doi:10.1093/scan/nsu036

Kashima, E. S., & Abu-Rayya, H. (2014). Longitudinal association of cultural distance with psychological wellbeing among Australian immigrants from 49 countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 587-600. doi:10.1177/0022022113519857

Kashima, E. S., & Pillai, D. (2011). Identity development in cultural transition: The role of need for closure. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 726-740. doi:10.1177/0022022110362749

Sakurai, T., McCall-Wolf, F., & Kashima, E. S. (2010). Building intercultural links: The impact of a multicultural intervention program on social ties of international students in Australia. Special issue on Applied Acculturation Research: Working with and for Communities. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34, 176-185.

Kashima, E.S., & Loh, E. (2006). International students’ acculturation: Effects of international, conational, and local ties and need for closure. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 471-485.

Language and communication

Kidd, E., Kemp, N., Kashima, E. S., & Quinn, S. (2016). Language, culture and group membership: an investigation into the social effects of colloquial Australian English. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47, 713-733. doi:10.1177/0022022116638175.

Kashima, Y., Kashima, E., & Kidd, E. (2014). Language and culture. Oxford Handbooks Online. Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology. DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199838639.013.010

Kashima, Y., Bekkering, H., & Kashima, E. S. (2013). Communicative intentions can modulate the linguistic perception-action link. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33-34.

Kashima, Y., Kashima, E. S., Bain, P., Lyons, A., Tindale, R., Robins, G., & Whelan, J. (2012). Communication and essentialism. In M. Drogosz, M. Bilewicz & M. Kofta (Eds.), Beyond Stereotypes: Dehumanization and Essentialism in Group Perception. Warsaw, Poland: PWN (pp. 67-94).

Kashima, Y., Shi, J., Tsuchiya, K., Cheng, S. Y. Y., Chao, M. M. M., Kashima, E. S., & Shin, S. H. (2011). Globalization and folk theory of social change: How globalization relates to social perceptions about the past and future. Special issue “Social psychology of globalization” Journal of Social Issues, 67(4), 696-715.



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Older publications

Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H., Nakagawa, S., & 37 Members of the Multinational Study of Cultural Display Rules (2008). Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 925-937.

Kashima, Y., Kashima, E. S., Kim, U., & Gelfand, M. (2006). Describing the social world: Object-centered versus process-centered descriptions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 388-396.

Kashima, Y., Kashima, E.S., Chiu, C-Y., Farsides, T., Gelfand, M., Hong, Y.Y., Kim, U., Strack, F., Worth, L., Yuki, Y., and Yzerbyt, V. (2005). Culture, essentialism, and agency: Are individuals universally believed to be more real entities than groups? European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 147-169.

Kashima, E. S., Halloran, M., Yuki, M., & Kashima, Y. (2004). The effects of personal and collective mortality salience on individualism: Comparing Australians and Japanese with higher and lower self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 384-392.

Halloran, M., & Kashima, E. S. (2004). Social identity and worldview validation: The influence of ingroup identity primes on mortality salience effects. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 915-925.

Kashima, Y., Kokubo, T., Kashima, E. S., Boxall, D., Yamaguchi, S., & MacRae, K. (2004). Culture and self: Are there within-culture differences in self between metropolitan areas and regional cities? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 816-823.

Kashima, Y., & Kashima, E. S. (2003). Individualism, GNP, and pronoun drop: Is individualism determined by climate and economic affluence, or does language use play a role? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 125-134.

Kashima, Y., Woolcock, J., & Kashima, E. S. (2000). Group impressions as dynamic configurations: The tensor product model of group impression formation and change. Psychological Review, 107, 914-942.

Kashima, E. S., & Hardie, E. A. (2000). Development and validation of the relational, individual, and collective self-aspects (RIC) scale. Journal of Asian Social Psychology, Special Issue on Culture and Self, 3, 19-48.

Kashima, E. S., & Kashima, Y. (1998). Culture and language: The case of cultural dimensions and personal pronoun use. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29, 461-486.

Kashima, E. S., & Kashima, Y. (1993).  Perceptions of general variability of social group. Social Cognition, 11, 1-21.

Kashima, Y., Siegal, M., Tanaka, J., & Kashima, E. S. (1992).  Do people believe behaviours are consistent with attitudes?  Towards a cultural psychology of attribution processes.  British Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 1-14.

Research projects

  1. Psychological threat and managing threat
  2. Cultural neuroscience
  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and culture learning 
  4. Language and communication
  5. Cultural differences in social motives