Postgrad Students in EEE
The ecology, life history and thermal biology of the Guthega Skink, Liopholis guthega, from two geographically isolated alpine environments
Zak studies the nationally endangered alpine endemic lizard the Guthega Skink which occurs above 1600 m in Kosciuszko National Park in New South Wales, and the Bogong High Plains in Victoria. This species’ extremely limited and highly fragmented distribution is further threatened by climate change, tourism and fire. Zak's research will investigate the ecology and life history of L. guthega in order to better understand its thermal and habitat requirements, and reproductive and dispersal capabilities. It will hopefully aid in the conservation and future persistence of this species in the wild.
Animal behaviour through a virtual lens
Xue’s project will utilize a multifaceted strategy to study motion displays of Australia’s Agamid lizards, providing an exciting opportunity to study how animal signals have evolved to be effective in the environment in which they are emitted. This study will take knowledge and data from nature into a virtual 3D animation laboratory to reconstruct realistic microhabitats, simulate environmental conditions, and systematically manipulate the scenes allowing the consideration of circumstances influencing signal effectiveness in unprecedented details. Experimenting with virtual habitats offers exciting opportunities for answering questions about motion signalling that would be impractical in nature.
The functional significance of ant colouration
Ants are of immense ecological importance and can be strikingly colourful, ranging from diaphanous yellows to intense reds. James is exploring the colour diversification of ants from a functional perspective in order to identify associations between colour traits and the environment. This will be achieved through a broad variety of approaches including field comparisons, behavioural trials, manipulative experiments, ultrastructural investigations, and visual modelling. This novel approach will potentially enable the development and application of colour-related traits in trait-based ecological studies, as well as contributing to our understanding of animal colouration more generally.
Fire and rain – investigating how major ecological drivers shape a semi-arid bird community over space and time
Worldwide, fire is increasingly used as a management tool to reduce the risk of wildfire, by reducing fuel loads, and to conserve and promote biodiversity, by burning to protect or generate habitat for fire-sensitive biota. It is of high importance that we enhance our knowledge of how species’ persistence, distributions and dynamics are impacted by fire and the application of prescribed burning, major climatic patterns, and the interactions between these drivers. My research project seeks to understand the effects of such disturbance patterns on the long-term fluctuations in abundance and spatial distribution of a bird community, including a focus on its threatened and declining members, in a fire-prone mallee region of north-west Victoria.
Supervisors: Professor Michael Clarke, Dr Simon Watson
Cascading effects of the native fossorial critical weight range mammals on soil ecology and function
The burrowing and foraging activity of fossorial mammals is crucial in ecosystem functioning, such as nutrient distribution and seed dispersal. The extinction of burrowing mammals might have a huge impact on soil processes and nutrient cycles. Orsi’s project seeks to understand the terrestrial world below ground and the big picture of ecosystem functioning shaped by direct and indirect trophic interactions between fossorial mammals, invertebrates and soil properties. Her research is based on large-scale replicated exclusion experiments across arid Australia where ecologically extinct fossorial mammals such as bettongs and bilbies have been reintroduced.
The dark side of night-lights: does energy-efficient lighting cause unexpected ecological damage?
It seems ironic that in a bid to combat climate change, and ultimately ‘save the planet’, we are making drastic changes to technology without a full understanding of the hidden ecological damage they might be causing. The introduction of energy-saving lighting, such as energy-efficient LEDs, may be having a great impact on the health of Australian wildlife. Exposure to artificial light can result in a wide range of biological effects on animals including, modified behaviour, disrupted foraging and altered timing of reproduction.
My research aims to identify both the ecological and health impacts of artificial night lighting on targeted groups of Australian mammals. I will then experimentally assess our ability to mitigate these impacts by changing the spectral composition of lights to produce “wildlife-friendly” lighting. Findings from my work will be directly used to generate Australian guidelines regarding lighting design and spectral wavelengths for wildlife-friendly night lighting in sensitive areas.
Overabundance of a native, iconic vertebrate: Cascading ecological effects and public perception on management of koalas.
Margreet is investigating cascading ecological effects of Eucalypt tree dieback caused by overabundant koalas in south-eastern Australia. By focussing on possible changes in vegetation composition she will improve our understanding of how over-browsing by koalas can impact an area in different ways. In addition, using questionnaires, she will map public perception on possible management strategies to reduce the impact of overabundant koalas. Margreet aims to obtain a comprehensive and updated view of public perception in a long-lasting discussion.
Managed Aquifer Recharge - Risks of injection clogging using recycled water in a confined alluvial aquifer
Attlila's research focuses on Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), which involves a range of methods to recharge water underground such as infiltration basins and injection wells, with important applications in sustainable use and management of natural resources. Although the techniques are well established, the technology is not without its operational problems, one of the most common being the decline of recharge capacity over time due to clogging. The study uses drilling samples, groundwater and recycled water from a MAR scheme in the Melbourne area, as well as other reference samples to provide insights into how clogging may affect MAR schemes.
Going through hell: The drivers of detritivore recovery after fire
Joshua’s project aims to understand how species from four detritivorous taxa (Diplopoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, Lepidoptera) recover following forest fires. Fire adversely impacts detritivores which, as essential contributors to decomposition reduce fuel build-up. Fire occurrence and severity therefore depends on the functioning of the detritivore community. Joshua's project centres on three aspects of detritovore recovery: 1) in-situ survival 2) survival in the post-fire environment and 3) recolonisation. He expects to identify ecological factors important in recovery and that these results will have potential to inform fire management regarding the likely impacts of fire regimes on detritivores.
The role of vegetated linear networks for fauna conservation within agricultural environments
Mark studies agricultural landscapes and the habitat features that influence the species richness and composition of woodland bird and native bee communities. The focus of his PhD research is on linear strips of vegetation (roadsides and streams) and scattered paddock trees, and tests their importance as habitat and areas for foraging and breeding. The results of this study will answer important ecological questions and assist land managers in better targeting management actions to improve site suitability for woodland birds and native bees within heavily modified environments.
Supervisors: Prof Andrew Bennett, Dr Simon Watson, Dr Dale Nimmo (Charles Sturt University)
Hydrological and vegetation controls upon the Ovens River, southeast Victoria.
Clayton’s project focuses on terrestrially aged Eucalyptus camaldulensis (River red gum) leaves as a source of bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), which he believes has the capacity to act as a valuable nutrient source to in-stream processes, but has received limited attention in the past. After investigating proteins and amino acids from Eucalyptus leaves as a DON source, Clayton has now begun to examine fungi as both a source and for catalyst for the release of DON. He hopes that his work will contribute to a greater understanding of freshwater nutrient cycles and food-web dynamics within both floodplain and riverine environments.
Beyond the fringe: temporal and spatial change in peri-urban land-use and avian communities.
The term ‘peri-urban’ is used to describe a transitional zone between urbanised centres and rural land. Worldwide, peri-urban development is one of the fastest growing forms of private land-use. As these developments occur among, or in close proximity to, natural habitats, they can impact native species distributions and community composition. Despite this, little is known of the potential ecological consequences of such development, especially in Australia. Jacinta’s project aims to quantify the effect of peri-urban development on native wildlife. As a case study, she will investigate the past and present change in peri-urban land-use and avian communities around greater Melbourne
Ecologically relevant sleep-dependent cognition in birds.
Sleep is important for maintaining optimal performance during wakefulness. The dominant venue for sleep research is the laboratory, with a clear focus on the study of inbred strains of rat and mouse. Most work on the role of sleep in memory processing and performance is conducted with mazes and motor-vigilance tasks. However, (a) the laboratory is an overly simplified environment that fails to capture the complexity of natural conditions, (b) inbred rodents themselves are simplified animals, and (c) the cognitive tests used have limited ecological relevance. Little is known about how animals use sleep for maintaining cognitive abilities in the wild.
Advanced cognition is a key trait enhancing the fitness of many wild animals. Maintaining the neural mechanisms for advanced cognition, including specialized memory, is energetically expensive, and is critically dependent on sleep. In addition, sleep also imposes missed-opportunity costs on animals by limiting the time available to perform alternative behaviours. In my PhD, I will study the ecological role of sleep-dependent cognition in the lives of wild birds in Australia and in the USA.
Supervisors: Dr John Lesku, Dr Timothy Roth (Franklin and Marshall College, USA), Prof. John Endler (Deakin University).
Influence of ontogenetic and environmental factors on the abundance and composition of tannins in Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves
Tannins are secondary metabolites found in almost all plants. They have a range of functions, e.g. defence (against herbivores, microbes, viruses and competing plants), signalling (attraction of pollinating or seed dispersing animals) and photoprotection (limit damage of photosynthetic apparatus by ultraviolet radiation). The photoprotection hypothesis is controversial because there is a paucity of empirical evidence to counter the widely accepted anti-herbivory explanation. This is especially true for Eucalyptus in which tannins are commonly cited as providing defence against insect and vertebrate herbivores. Using HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of glasshouse- and field-grown leaves, I will investigate the putative photoprotective role of tannins in all seven subspecies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (River red gum). I will relate differences in tannin composition to the distribution of the species across the Australian continent.
Supervisors & collaborator: Assoc. Prof. Martin Steinbauer, Dr Ian Potter (Department of Chemistry and Physics), Dr Simone Rochfort (AgriBio) and Prof. Juha-Pekka Salminen (University of Turku, Finland).
The role of the Superb Lyrebird (Menura novaehollandiae) as a forest ecosystem engineer
Alex has been interested in Lyrebirds for over 15 years. His PhD project is aimed at determining the ecosystem engineering role of this soil-displacing songster, and the way in which they utilise (and thus modify) Australia’s south-eastern forests. Whilst working with this charismatic species, he hopes to develop techniques and understanding applicable to other forest systems where engineers play important roles in ecosystem function.
Supervisor: Prof. Andrew Bennett
Managing grasslands for the Plains-wanderer (Pedionomus torquatus) and other fauna: Re-introduce fire or maintain livestock grazing?
Victoria’s Northern Plains Grasslands are one of the last remaining strongholds for the critically endangered and evolutionary unique Plains-wanderer (Pedionomus torquatus). These grasslands are currently managed using livestock grazing and fire to promote an open vegetation structure thought to be optimal for the Plains-wanderer. However there has been little study of the mechanisms by which vegetation structure influences the occurrence of Plains-wanderers and other grassland birds. In particular, knowledge of how varying disturbance regimes and resultant vegetation structure influence food availability and foraging patterns is lacking. My research project aims to provide empirical evidence to help guide improved management of Plains-wanderer habitat by investigating habitat requirements and movement ecology of the Plains-wanderer, and identify the effects of livestock and management practices on habitat for grassland birds.
Supervisors: Dr John Morgan, Dr Steve Leonard, Dr David Baker-Gabb (external)
Sleep evolution: pharmacological, electrophysiological, biochemical and comparative perspectives.
Sleep is a much-studied behaviour across animals, with humans spending roughly one-third of their lives in this vulnerable state. But where did it all start? My research looks at the evolutionary origins of sleep. My main research group is platyhelminth flatworms – a phylum that appeared 800 million years ago - to determine whether the processes that maintain and regulate sleep in humans is shared between distantly-related animals. To do this, I use a combination of behavioural, pharmacological, biochemical, and electrophysiological techniques. As well as looking at flatworms, I examine the phylogenetic breadth of sleep, through the study of animal phyla previously unstudied with respect to sleep. Collectively, these studies will provide insight into when, why, and how sleep first appeared.
Managing fire, flora and fauna – how does fire drive species distributions?
Fire is a driver of change in ecosystems throughout the world. As the interface between human settlement and wild lands increases, and with the changing climate predicted to cause more frequent and severe wildfires, there is the increasing need to manage the landscape for the consequences of fire. But fire affects species and, consequently, ecosystems differently depending on their fire-response strategy and the environmental context. For fire management to achieve conservation outcomes, we must understand these nuances. Using ecological modelling tools and a combination of historical records and field studies, my research aims to further our understanding of how fire, climate and the environment drive the distributions of plant and animal species in some of the world’s most fire-prone ecosystems.
Supervisor: Prof. Andrew Bennett
Remote Sensing evapotransiration in Blue Gum plantations
Rakhshan is modelling for remote sensing evapotranspiration estimate to constrain groundwater contributions to catchment water balances in western Victoria. Evapotranspiration is an essential component of the hydrological balance. For field measurements of ET, various techniques are used. Although point data can be extrapolated, the reliability over large areas is uncertain. To overcome this limitation, a Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Rainfed Agriculture (SEBARA) is developed and the satellite data, at a spatial resolution of 30 x 30m, is used to estimate the spatial pattern of evapotranspiration.
Extensive blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations have been established in SW Victoria which have impacted the groundwater resources. Her project will help to understand the impact of land use shift on the available water resources.
Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. John Webb
Rural landscapes of change: The effect of land-use on birds of the western Strzelecki Ranges
I am interested in global patterns of rural landscape change and how birds respond to new ecosystems that are developing within these shifting landscapes. My PhD research is currently investigating how different types of land activities influence the bird community in agricultural hill country. This research aims to inform the development of future land management strategies and provide insights for understanding and enhancing this important component of rural biodiversity.
Assessment of eucalypts by Glycaspis species of psyllid: quantifying the roles of phytochemical and physical traits on host acceptance
Lerp-forming psyllids in the megadiverse genus Glycaspis (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) are important components of Australia’s biodiversity but one in particular (Glycaspis brimblecombei) is also an economically important pest overseas. My project will focus on G. brimblecombei and Glycaspis sp. n. ex. Eucalyptus leucoxylon which differ in host breadth, i.e. G. brimblecombei is oligophagous (in Australia it has been recorded from seven species and from E. tereticornis in Uruguay) while Glycaspis sp. n. is apparently monophagous (recorded from E. leucoxylon on which it co-occurs with G. brimblecombei). These two species provide an opportunity to investigate how psyllid adaptations to plant secondary compounds and foliar physical characteristics have been associated with changes in host breadth within Glycaspis. My project will address interactions potentially linked to host shifts and divergence of psyllids on Eucalyptus.
Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Martin Steinbauer
Lithic procurement systems in southeast Tasmania: A geoarchaeological analysis of Aboriginal hornfels quarries.
Stone tools represent an incredibly important part of Tasmania’s archaeological record. Aboriginal stone artefact quarries are key to understanding how Aboriginal people obtained stone for tool manufacture, and how those tools were subsequently used, transported and discarded. My project investigates how the distribution and utilisation of stone artefact quarries influenced Aboriginal land-use in southeast Tasmania. By combining geological and archaeological techniques, including GIS, technological analysis of artefacts and geochemical analysis using portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF), my research aims to provide further insight into the mobility patterns, raw material economies and settlement systems of the Tasmanian Aborigines.
Melissa Van De Wetering
‘The little things that run the world’: The effects of large-scale dominant ant suppression on ecosystem function in Australia’s seasonal tropics.
Ants are numerically and behaviourally dominant organisms that contribute to many ecological processes. Yet despite their ubiquity in terrestrial environments, the extent of their functional contribution is poorly understood. Ant communities can be structured by dominance hierarchies where ecologically dominant species often represent a disproportionally high fraction of total ant biomass. My project aims to investigate the role of ants in a range of ecological functions, including trophic interactions and ant-plant mutualisms, by experimentally suppressing dominant ant species. This will provide insights into the disproportional functional contribution of key species, the potential for ecological redundancy and the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem functioning.
Campbell Van Praagh
The White Hills Gravel throughout Central Victoria
The White Hills Gravel is an Early Tertiary fluvial gravel, deposited some 55 – 68 million years ago, that is preserved as remnants throughout much of northwestern and north-central Victoria. The distribution and properties of these river gravels suggest that they were deposited during high-energy chaotic floods that affected a large area across Victoria. Campbell’s research aims to improve upon the previous mapping of the White Hills Gravel across these areas, and reconstruct the likely pathways of the ancient rivers that deposited them. Campbell will also interpret aspects of the Early Tertiary landscape and climate of Victoria through analysis of the gravels, and endeavour to identify less-prominent faults within the landscape that may have been missed within previous geological mapping. The project involves a significant component of field work, and the use of GIS software to store and analyse the collected data.
How does a dispersal-limited bird persist in a shifting and fragmented landscape?
The mallee emu-wren Stipiturus mallee is the epitome of the Aussie battler. It weighs barely five grams, it considers ten metres a long flight, and it resides in some of the world’s most flammable vegetation. Like many Australians, the mallee emu-wren is trapped by a paradoxical relationship with fire. It requires fire to create new habitat, yet fire is a major contributor to local extinctions of this species. It is a poor disperser, yet its habitat is intrinsically fragmented. Simon uses long-term distribution data and ecological modelling to aid him in his investigations into the ecology of this fascinating species.
Supervisor: Prof. Mike Clarke
Reproductive sleeplessness in dasyurid marsupials
Sleep is a prominent part of animal life, but our understanding of the adaptive value of sleep remains incomplete. Even though it is generally accepted that reduced performance is an evolutionary outcome of sleeplessness, some animals may perform well on little sleep when ecological demands favour extended periods of wakefulness. My project examines the activity patterns of dasyurid marsupials in lab-based and semi-wild environments, and quantifies the concentration of various hormones that may predict activity levels. Furthermore, to provide insight into sleep evolution and function, my research seeks to determine whether the most active males sire more offspring.
Supervisor: Dr John Lesku