Communicate to Vaccinate 2

Communication is essential to the uptake of routine infant and childhood immunizations and is an integral feature of mass vaccination campaigns.  Communication is also key to achieving the goal of knowledgeable parents, caregivers and communities - important contributors to improving child health in low income settings and to achieving the health-related millennium development goals.

In the COMMVAC 1 project (2010 - 2012), the project team developed a taxonomy and evidence map of communication strategies for routine childhood vaccination.  These were presented to international stakeholders to set priorities for Cochrane systematic reviews. Two reviews have since been published, with an update currently underway.

Building on the work of COMMVAC 1, the aim of the COMMVAC 2 project (2013 - 2017) was to develop guidance for policy makers and programme managers on how to strengthen vaccine delivery and increase vaccination uptake in low-income countries (LICs) through the integration of evidence-based communication strategies that are adapted for local conditions.

This research was funded by the Research Council of Norway.

Project team

Name Organisation
Simon Lewin Norwegian Knowledge Centre  for the Health Services
Sophie Hill La Trobe University, Australia
Xavier Bosch-Capblanch Swiss Centre for International Health
Yuri Cartier International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE)
Julie Cliff Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique
Claire Glenton Norwegian Knowledge Centre  for the Health Services
Jessica Kaufman La Trobe University, Australia
Vivian Lin La Trobe University, Australia
Artur Manuel Muloliwa Ministry of Health, Mozambique
Afiong Oku University of Calabar, Nigeria
Angela Oyo-Ita University of Calabar, Nigeria

Summary

The project team met in Nampula, Mozambique in April 2013 for a planning meeting, where outlines were developed for the three PhDs and one post-doctoral project which were completed in the course of COMMVAC 2.

Three researchers conducted field work in Cameroon, Nigeria and Mozambique, gathering data on the implementation of communication strategies in the context of routine and mass vaccination campaigns. A qualitative systematic review about parents' and caregivers' experiences and perceptions of early childhood vaccination information was also published on the Cochrane Library.

After developing a comprehensive taxonomy of communication interventions used in both mass campaigns and routine vaccination, the research team at La Trobe aimed to address the significant knowledge gap around what outcomes can and should be measured to evaluate vaccination interventions that involve communication. Through a trans-disciplinary literature review and focus groups with parents, researchers, healthcare providers and policymakers, we developed a taxonomy of potential outcomes associated with vaccination communication interventions (Kaufman 2016; Kaufman 2017b). Following a stakeholder prioritisation process, we determined that many outcomes that stakeholders agreed should be measured were not regularly assessed (Kaufman 2017c).

Publications and presentations

COMMVAC 2:

Peer reviewed

  • Kaufman J, Ryan R, Hill S. Qualitative focus groups with stakeholders identify new potential outcomes related to vaccination communication. PLoS ONE 2018, 13(8): e0201145. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201145
  • Kaufman J, Ryan R, Walsh L, Horey D, Leask J, Robinson P, Hill S. Face-to-face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD010038. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010038.pub3. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010038.pub3
  • Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Glenton C, Fretheim A, Ames H, Muloliwa A, Kaufman J, Hill S, Cliff J, Cartier Y, Bosch-Capblanch X, Rada G, Lewin S. Perceptions and experiences of childhood vaccination communication strategies among caregivers and health workers in Nigeria: a qualitative study. PLoS ONE 2017, 12(11): e0186733. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186733.
  • Ames HMR, Glenton C, Lewin S. Parents' and informal caregivers' views and experiences of communication about routine childhood vaccination: a synthesis of qualitative evidence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD011787. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011787.pub2.
  • Kaufman J, Ryan R, Ames H, Bosch-Capblanch X, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Glenton C, Lewin S, Muloliwa AM, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Rada G, Hill S. Identification of preliminary core outcome domains for communication about childhood vaccination: an online Delphi survey. Vaccine 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.08.027. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X17310940
  • Ames H, Njang DM, Glenton C, Fretheim A, Kaufman J, Hill S, Oku A, Cliff J, Cartier Y, Bosch-Capblanch X, Rada G, Muloliwa AM, Oyo-Ita A, Lewin S. Stakeholder perceptions of communication about vaccination in two regions of Cameroon: A qualitative case study. PLoS ONE 2017, 12(8): e0183721. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183721
  • Kaufman J, Ames H, Bosch-Capblanch X, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Glenton C, Lewin S, Muloliwa AM, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Rada G, Hill S. The comprehensive 'Communicate to Vaccinate' taxonomy of communication interventions for childhood vaccination in routine and campaign contexts. BMC Public Health 2017, 17:423. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4320-x. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-017-4320-x
  • Kaufman J, Ryan R, Glenton C, Lewin S, Bosch-Capblanch X, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Oyo-Ita A, Ames H, Muloliwa AM, Oku A, Rada G, Hill S. Childhood vaccination communication outcomes unpacked and organized in a taxonomy to facilitate core outcome establishment. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2017, 84:173-184. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.02.007. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0895435616305455
  • Muloliwa AM, Cliff J, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Glenton C, Ames H, Kaufman J, Hill S, Cartier Y, Bosch-Capblanch X, Rada G, Lewin S. Using the COMMVAC taxonomy to map vaccination communication interventions in Mozambique. Global Health Action 2017, 10(1). doi: 10.1080/16549716.2017.1321313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2017.1321313
  • Oku AO, Oyo-Ita A, Glenton C, Fretheim A, Eteng G, Ames H, Muloliwa A, Kaufman J, Hill S, Cliff J, Cartier Y, Bosch-Capblanch X, Rada G, Lewin S. Factors affecting the implementation of childhood vaccination communication strategies in Nigeria: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health 2017, 17:200. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4020-6. http://rdcu.be/phjs
  • Kaufman J, Ryan R, Bosch-Capblanch X, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Glenton C, Lewin S, Rada G, Ames H, Muloliwa AM, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Hill S. Outcomes mapping study for childhood vaccination communication: too few concepts were measured in too many ways. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2016, 72:33-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2015.10.003. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0895435615004679
  • Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Lewin S, Glenton C, Fretheim A, Ames H, Kaufman J, Hill S, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Muloliwa A, Rada G, Bosch-Capblanch X. Communication strategies to promote the uptake of childhood vaccination in Nigeria: A systematic map. Global Health Action 2016, 9(1). doi: 10.3402/gha.v9.30337. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/gha.v9.30337
  • Ames H, Njang DM, Glenton C, Fretheim A, Kaufman J, Hill S, Oku A, Cliff J, Cartier Y, Bosch-Capblanch X, Rada G, Muloliwa A, Oyo-Ita A, Lewin S. Mapping how information about childhood vaccination is communicated in two regions of Cameroon: What is done and where are the gaps? BMC Public Health 2015, 15:1264. http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-015-2557-9
  • Leask J, Willaby H, Kaufman J. The big picture in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2014, 10(9): www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.4161/hv.29725.

Invited presentations

  • Kaufman J, Ryan R, Hill S. (2017) How a model for evaluating communication strategies could help to unpack and address vaccine hesitancy. Fondation Mérieux Conference: Vaccine Acceptance Science, Policy, and Practice in a “Post-Fact” World, Annecy, France, 25-27 September 2017.
  • Kaufman J, Ames H, Bosch-Capblanch X, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Glenton C, Lewin S, Muloliwa AM, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Rada G, Hill S. (2016) Communicate to Vaccinate: a research project building evidence for the implementation and evaluation of communication for childhood vaccination. Fondation Mérieux Conference: Strategies to increase vaccine acceptance and uptake, Annecy, France, 26-28 September 2016.

Other presentations

  • Kaufman J, Ryan R, Glenton C, Bosch-Capblanch X, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Lewin S, Rada G, Ames H, Muloliwa AM, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Hill S. (2015). A map of outcomes in trials of communication interventions for childhood vaccination: measuring too few concepts in too many ways. Oral presentation, 23rd Cochrane Colloquium, Vienna, October 3-7 2015.
  • Kaufman J. (2015, 2016, 2017). Communicate to Vaccinate: the COMMVAC systematic review. Guest lecture, Evidence Based Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne.
  • Kaufman J. (2015). Communicate to Vaccinate: the COMMVAC systematic review. Guest lecture, Applied Health Research, La Trobe University, Melbourne, August 10 2015.
  • Kaufman J. (2014). Communication is everybody’s business: improving the design, measurement and implementation of communication strategies for childhood vaccination. Masterclass Presentation, Health Protection Branch, Department of Health Victoria, Melbourne, May 9 2014.
  • Kaufman J. (2013, 2014). ‘Communicate to vaccinate’ (COMMVAC): the integration of evidence in a public health research project. Guest lecture, Evidence Based Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, September 3 2013 and September 2 2014.
  • Kaufman J. (2013). Organising evidence on communication interventions to improve childhood vaccination in low- and middle-income countries: developing and applying the ‘Communicate to Vaccinate’ taxonomy. Oral presentation, IUHPE World Conference on Health Promotion, Pattaya, Thailand, August 2013.
  • Kaufman J, Lewin S. (2013) Can communication interventions improve childhood vaccination uptake and what are the implications for health systems? Findings from two systematic reviews. Oral presentation, IUHPE World Conference on Health Promotion, Pattaya, Thailand, August 2013.
  • Kaufman J, Willis N, Hill S. (2012). Development of a taxonomy of communication interventions: the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project. Presentation to the School of Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, May 23 2012.
  • Hill S, Kaufman J (2010) Communicate to Vaccinate: Taxonomy development and evidence mapping. Seminar, Centre for Health Communication and Participation, La Trobe University, Carlton, November 25 2010.

Select conference posters

  • Muloliwa AM, Cliff J, De Maria F, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Glenton C, Ames H, Kaufman J, Hill S, Cartier Y, Bosch-Capblanch X, Rada G, Lewin S. (2018) Comunicação para vacinação em zonas rurais e urbanas da província de Nampula, Moçambique [Communication for vaccination in rural and urban areas of the province of Nampula, Mozambique]. XVI Jornadas Nacionais de Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique, 17-20 September 2018.
  • Kaufman J, Ames H, Bosch-Capblanch X, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Glenton C, Lewin S, Muloliwa AM, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Rada G, Hill S. (2017) Communicate To Vaccinate Project: Building Evidence For The Implementation And Evaluation Of Childhood Vaccination Communication. 15th World Congress on Public Health, Melbourne, Australia, 3-7 April 2017.
  • Kaufman J, Ryan R, Glenton C, Cartier Y, Bosch-Capblanch X, Cliff J, Lewin S, Ames H, Muloliwa AM, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Rada G, Hill S. (2015) Outcomes in trials of vaccination communication interventions: measuring too few concepts in too many ways. ISDM/ISEHC Conference, Sydney, Australia, 19-22 July 2015.
  • Kaufman J, Muloliwa AM, Lewin S, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Glenton C, Fretheim Atle, Ames H, Hill S, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Rada G, Bosch-Capblanch X. (2015). How do we know what works? Developing a map of outcomes to improve the evaluation of communication strategies for childhood vaccination. Poster presentation, Global Health and Vaccination Conference, Oslo, March 17-18 2015.
  • Kaufman J, Hill S, Lewin S, Ryan R, Ames H, Bosch-Capblanch X, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Glenton C, Lin V, Muloliwa AM, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Rada G, Synnot A. (2014) Communication is everybody’s business: developing methods to improve the evaluation of communication strategies for childhood vaccination. 22nd Cochrane Colloquium, Hyderabad, September 21 – 26 2014.
  • Kaufman J, Hill S, Lewin S, Ryan R, Ames H, Bosch-Capblanch X, Cartier Y, Cliff J, Glenton C, Lin V, Muloliwa AM, Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Rada G. (2014) How do we know what works? Developing a vaccination communication outcomes taxonomy. PHAA 14th National Immunisation Conference, Melbourne, June 17 - 19 2014.

Other media

COMMVAC 1:

Peer reviewed

  • Saeterdal I, Lewin S, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Glenton C, Munabi-Babigumira S. Interventions aimed at communities to inform and/or educate about early childhood vaccination. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD010232. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010232.pub2. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD010232.pub2/abstract
  • Willis N, Hill S, Kaufman J, Lewin S, Kis-Rigo J, De Castro Freire SB, Bosch-Capblanch X, Glenton C, Lin V, Robinson P, Wiysonge CS. "Communicate to vaccinate": the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2013, 13:23. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-698X/13/23
  • Kaufman J, Synnot A, Ryan R, Hill S, Horey D, Willis N, Lin V, Robinson P. Face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD010038. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010038.pub2. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD010038.pub2/abstract
  • Lewin S, Hill S, Abdullahi LH, Bensaude de Castro Freire S, Bosch-Capblanch X, Glenton C, Hussey GD, Jones CM, Kaufman J, Lin V, Mahomed H, Rhoda L, Robinson P, Waggie Z, Willis N, Wiysonge CS. 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC). Building evidence for improving communication about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a programme of research. Implementation Science 2011, 6:125. http://www.implementationscience.com/content/6/1/125

Other

  • Willis N, Kaufman J. (2011) 'Communicate to Vaccinate': building on research knowledge to improve communication about childhood vaccination with parents and communities. InTouch: Newsletter of the Public Health Association of Australia, 28:11.

Posters

  • Willis N, Hill S, Kaufman J, Lewin S (presenter), Bensaude de Castro Freire S, Bosch-Capblanch X, Glenton C, Lin V, Robinson P, Wiysonge CS. (2012) Developing a taxonomy to organise and conceptualise evidence on communication interventions to improve vaccination in low-and middle-income countries. XXth Cochrane Colloquium, Auckland, New Zealand, 30 Sept. - 3 Oct 2012. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review Suppl 27-28.
  • Lewin S, Hill S, Kaufman J, Willis N, Bensaude de Castro Freire S, Bosch-Capblanch X, Lin V, Robinson P, Wiysonge C. (2012) 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project: Building evidence for communication about childhood vaccinations. Population Health Congress 2012, Adelaide, September 9-12 2012.
  • Lewin S, Hill S, Kaufman J, Willis N, Bensaude de Castro Freire S, Bosch-Capblanch X, Lin V, Robinson P, Wiysonge C. (2012) 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project: building evidence for communication about childhood vaccinations. PHAA 13th National Immunisation Conference, Darwin, June 19 -21 2012.
  • Lewin S, Hill S, Kaufman J, Galak N, Kis-Rigo J, Anderson , Bosch-Capblanch X, Hussein L, Lin V, Mahomed H, Rhoda L, Robinson P, ben Saude de Castro Freire S, Waggie Z, Wiysonge C. (2011) A novel approach to building evidence for improving communication about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries: the 'communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project. XIX Cochrane Colloquium, Madrid, October 19-21 2011.
  • Lewin S, Hill S, Kaufman J, Galak N, Kis-Rigo J, Anderson , Bosch-Capblanch X, Hussein L, Lin V, Mahomed H, Rhoda L, Robinson P, ben Saude de Castro Freire S, Waggie Z, Wiysonge C. (2011) A novel approach to building evidence for improving communication about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries: the 'communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project. 6th Conference on Global Health and Vaccination Research and the Norwegian Medical Association`s 125th Anniversary Conference, Oslo, September 12–13 2011.

Contact

Jessica Kaufman
Research Officer
COMMVAC 2 Project

T: +61 (0)3 9479 6013
F: +61 (0)3 9479 5977
Email: j.kaufman@latrobe.edu.au