Forced transnationalism: Sending migrants’ children home

Australian Research Council Discovery Project

Professor Helen Lee

This project uses a case study of Tongan migrants to investigate the practice of sending overseas-born children to live in the migrants' homeland for one or more school terms, often in response to concerns about their behaviour. The project explores the implications of the practice for the young people concerned, and their families, schools and wider communities. In particular the project focuses on the impact on young people's cultural identity and national belonging, educational outcomes and social problems associated with second generation youth.

This project was funded by the Australian Research Council, DP120103769, 2012-2014 ($128,000).


Lee, H (2015) 'The Lucky Ones'? Overseas born Tongan youth in Tongan high schools. Report on research funded by the Australian Research Council and approved by Tonga's Ministry of Education and Training. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2263.4406.


For further information about this project, please contact:  

Professor Helen Lee
Department of Social Inquiry
La Trobe University 
T: +61 3 9479 2749