Version 1.0, May 2014
There are many benefits to developing instructional video for learning and teaching. In particular video can enhance skill development, provide experience, motivation and a personal connection between the learner and teacher. You need to consider if and when video is the appropriate choice, consider your learning outcomes and how video will help your students achieve the desired outcome. Video is not just something that you can produce yourself, you may also considering what video materials you can source from subscription of Open Educational Resource sites. Students can also produce video to support their learning through dialogic instruction and digital storytelling.
Video for instruction
Characteristics of video that support learning and teaching
The table below provides a brief overview of the elements of video that support learning and teaching for you to consider in your production (Koumi 2006, 4).
Assist Learning and Skills Development
Effective cognitive design in video department
Hatsidmitris and Allen (2010) point to three principles to consider in video development for effective cognitive design.
The Inclusion of narration
- Narration can enhance temporal contiguity by utilising the dual channels of the working memory
- Personalisation – set up social norms that require the user to listen more attentively
- Spatial contiguity – locate words and images in sequence with each other
- Signalling – use cues letting to let users know where to focus their attention
- Segmentation – small replayable segments are better for learning than one continuous whole
- Pre-training principles – students perform better when the content of the media is introduced prior to the learning task
The visual aspects of the presentation
The Sequencing of the knowledge
The use of video in instruction works best with associated activities that encourage higher order thinking and reinforce the learning outcomes.
What Production Do I need?
There are three main considerations that will guide the level of production and resources needed to produce your video.
- Style Will it be a 'talking head' piece, voice over PowerPoint, interview or panel style discussion with experts?
- Endurance Will the piece have longevity or is it a short piece designed to be reproduced in subsequent subject instances?
- Deadline What is the timeframe and deadline for production?
Smaller, shorter talking head or PowerPoint voiceovers can be easily produced on your desktop or from a mobile device in a short timeframe. For special guest lectures or longer panel discussions the assistance of the LTLT Online Learning team may be required.
What Resources Can I Use?
DIY and desktop recording
There are many options for recording and editing independently. We are excited to announce that the One Button Studios are launching on your campus - some available now and some very soon! You can create high quality video recordings on campus in minutes. All you need to do is bring your USB drive with you and push a single button.
There are also some easy options for recording from your desktop. Editing capabilities vary from none, to basic and advanced.
- Echo360 Personal Capture (University supported – basic editing – available from the University Software System Centre)
- YouTube (records and hosts - basic editing)
- Zoom (no editing)
- ScreenFlow (requires purchase – refer ICT – advanced editing)
- Camtasia (requires purchase – refer ICT – advanced editing)
You'll need an input device for audio (and video if desired); a standard webcam attached to the recording computer will do. Many computers and laptops (e.g. iMac or any Mac laptop) now have this functionality built in.
If you require editing software you can download Adobe Premiere Elements 10 from the University Self Service Software Centre. Or you could use:
DIY Video Production Guides
Recording from a mobile device
You can also use a mobile device to record such as an iPad or iPhone. When recording audio you can use the headphones that came with your device, as these include a built in microphone that will provide a clearer result. iOS apps you can use to record audio and video presentations include:
Tech lending library - Borrow equipment
Additionally you can borrow cameras and equipment from the Tech Lending Library which houses high quality equipment to assist in the creation of learning resources.
Planning and production templates
Key to a successful production is planning. In the planning stage consider the purpose of the piece, the audience, delivery method, duration, type of content and flexibility of content. Create a script or if interviewing a guest, questions in advance. Put together a storyboard for larger production projects, this will help you devise what each scene or interaction should look like as well as the accompanying content that will best achieve your goals. Story board and av script templates are included in the appendix of the guide.
Videos & Accessibility
For users who are deaf or hard of hearing, online video is inaccessible unless a transcript of the audio is included. When you provide your video to students ensure it is accompanied by a transcript. If you produce a script for your video in the planning stage then this can also be used as a transcript to accompany your video. There are also programs like amara that allow you to easily add captions to video content.
OERs and sourcing video content
There are range of sites offering free and open movies, documentaries and other video content that can be incorporated into your teaching: SLOW TV, Open Culture, SnagFIlms, Internet Archive, TED Talks, ABC Archives, Khan Academy, 197 YouTube Channels you should know about, iTunes U, and Academic Earth.
The university library also offers subscribed video content via a number of services and sites: Library Subscribed Video Sites. Contact your Faculty librarian for more information.
Video in Dialogic Instruction
"Dialogic instructional practices are curricular and instructional designs that structure interactions in order to foreground the responsive interweaving of voices in the classroom" (Juzwik et al. 2010, 176).
The use of video in this case considers how video can be used for interaction, reflection, collaboration and feedback. In dialogic instruction video can be used to situate practice (e.g. students film themselves in placements or internships), students produce a video blogs to reflect on what happened in placements and can also include collaboration and feedback (students and staff comment on videos in critical collaboration).
- Video Production: YouTube (free records and hosts — basic editing) or Zoom (free — no editing), or students can also use their mobile devices to record video.
- Video Editing: iMovie (comes free with Mac), Movie Maker (comes free with PCs), Vimeo Video Editing App iOS, WeVideo Editing App .
- Hosting for Feedback: Voicethread (license required), Screencast, YouTube, Vimeo, Dropbox.
Video essays and digital storytelling
Digital storytelling is essentially the practice telling a story through the use of multimedia including graphics, audio, video, and Web publishing. Digital storytelling may also be referred to as digital documentaries, computer-based narratives, digital essays, electronic memoirs or interactive storytelling. Digital storytelling can be a powerful learning activity for students to generate interest, attention and motivation. They can be published and shared with their peers for critical evaluation and promote collaboration through group work.
In addition to the previous application and platforms above students can use the following in digital story telling production.
- Koumi, J. 2006. Designing Video and Multimedia for Open and Flexible Learning. Oxon: Routledge.
- Hatsidimitris, G., and Allen, B. 2010. In Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2010. Chesapeake: AACE. http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/appendices/Appendix7.pdf
- Heintz, A. et al. 2010. "Video-Based Response and Revision: Dialogic Instruction Using Video and Web 2.0 Technologies". Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education 10. http://www.citejournal.org/articles/v10i2languagearts2.pdf
- Robin, B., and McNeil, S.2012. "What educators should know about teaching digital storytelling". Digital Education Review, 22: 37-51.
- Clarke, R., and Adam, A. 2012. "Digital storytelling in Australia Academic perspectives and reflections". Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 11(1-2): 157-176. https://www.academia.edu/4446998/_with_Dr_Andrea_Adam_Digital_Storytelling_in_Australia_Academic_Perspectives_and_Reflections
- Pre-Recorded Lecture Guide UNSW features considerations and options for recording digital resources from UNSW.
- Educational Uses of Digital Story Telling is a comprehensive site on digital storytelling with examples, how-tos and educational materials.
- Video and Digital Story Telling Resources University of Wollongong provides great resources for digital storytelling and DIY recording and editing.
- YouTube 101 is a series of YouTube video explaining how to use YouTube.
- Video 101 on Vimeo is a guide on shooting basics for DIY video recording.
AV storyboard template
AV script template
AV production checklist
☐ Not Required
☐ Not Required
☐ On Campus
☐ Off Campus
☐ Not Required
☐ Not Required
☐ Not Required
☐ Not Required
The following staff have contributed to the production of this guide: Stephen Abblitt, John Hannon, Mitch Hughes, Kate Lumley, and Matthew Riddle
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Under this license you are free to copy, distribute, display and perform the work and to make derivative works. Attribution: You must attribute the work of the original authors and include the following statement: Support for the original work was provided by the Office of the Pro Vice Chancellor – Future Learning, as part of the Radical Learning Project. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. You can transform and build on this work, but the resulting work must be produced under a Non-Commercial, Share Alike license similar to this one.