Pedagogies for Blended Learning
This approach to blended learning requires the matching of subject learning outcomes to one or more online pedagogies, providing a framework for designing assessment tasks and learning activities both within the university's spaces and places for learning, and using the spaces of Web 2.0, or the "read/write" Web.
Working with pedagogies for blended learning can work well with the La Trobe's Curriculum Design Intensive (CDI) or FOLD strategy for curriculum design.
Designing learning activities and online assessment through
Transmission: learning occurs through a focus on knowledge and information delivery
Lecture recording (Lectopia), desktop recording (Echo360), library resources, open access materials, quizzes, self-assessment
Dialogue: participants learn through interaction and dialogue
Discussion and feedback
Discussion forums, chat, shared journals, peer review blogs, debates & role plays
Construction: learning occurs by developing a product
Project work in individual wikis, reflective writing, image creation, case study activities, video, desktop recording, mindmapping
Collaboration: groups of learners complete a series of goal-related tasks to produce an joint artefact
Shared presentation via wiki collaboration, problem-solving, shared document creation, image sharing, group blogs & wikis, community journals
Problem, project and enquiry-based learning
Enquiry and problem definition and solving, project-based learning, case studies, simulations, decision making, role play, quests
Applying pedagogies to flexible and online learning
This approach to flexible online learning design applies draws on "online pedagogies" that are adapted from Bower, Hedberg & Kuswara (2009, p. 1156), and La Trobe University's enquiry or problem-based learning approach:
- A pedagogy of transmission can introduce understanding on a topic through an instructional approach, directly imparting knowledge and processes.
- A pedagogy of dialogue enables students to extend the achievements of individual learning to learn in their Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky, 1978) through dialogue and conversation. This pedagogy follows Laurillard's (2002) dialogic model of a goal-action-feedback cycle.
- In a pedagogy of construction (Papert, 1986), students learn through construction of a product rather than through transmission of knowledge and information. They engage in activities over which they have a large degree of control, and find personally meaningful.
- A pedagogy of collaboration makes groups of learners responsible for the co-construction of a product or artefact, drawing on the peer processes of the dialogic pedagogy and productive activities of the constructionist pedagogy.
- Enquiry or problem-based learning: In the EBL or PBL approach, learning and teaching is organised around a central problem, enquiry, project or case study. This model of learning draws on Vygotsky, Dewey, and Lave & Wenger, and common to these approaches is the idea that experience is central to learning, and teamwork is integral to the process.
For example, a basic concept may be introduced using a pedagogy of transmission that applies an instructional approach with a quiz to test disciplinary knowledge. This knowledge oriented level of learning may be extended to develop graduate capabilities such as critical thinking (via a pedagogy of dialogue), problem-solving (via a construction pedagogy), or Inquiry/research and teamwork, (via a collaborative pedagogy). Designing assessment tasks can also make use of the social networking capability of Web 2.0 (Elliott, 2008).
Bower, M., Hedberg, J. & Kuswara, A. (2009). Conceptualising Web 2.0 enabled learning designs. In Same places, different spaces. Proceedings Ascilite Auckland 2009. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/auckland09/procs/bower.pdf.
Elliott, B. (2008). Assessment 2.0: Modernising assessment in the age of Web 2.0. Glasgow: Scottish Qualifications Authority. http://wiki.cetis.ac.uk/images/d/de/Assessment_2_v2.pdf.
Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking university teaching - A framework for the effective use of learning technologies. Oxford, UK: RoutledgeFalmer.
Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1990). Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Papert, S. (1986). Constructionism: A New Opportunity for Elementary Science Education. Unpublished Proposal to the National Science Foundation.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.