University Handbook 2017

Bachelor of Science

Course code/s: SBS

Course details
Location Bundoora
Course code SBS
Course coordinator Dr Ian Potter
Course advisor Dr Narwin Perkal (for students majoring in Mathematics, Nanotechnology, Physics, Statistics, Electronic Systems and Computer Science)
Course advisor Dr Fiona Bird (for students majoring in Botany, Biochemistry, Environmental Geoscience, Genetics, Microbiology and Zoology)
Course advisor Dr Ian Potter (for students majoring in Chemistry, Biochemistry, Agricultural Science and Psychology)
Available to international students Yes
CRICOS 022039C
Course duration 3 years full-time, or part-time equivalent
Credit points 360 credit points
Exchange opportunity Yes
Leave of absence available Yes, for a maximum of 12 months
Study plan guide  To assist with planning your enrolment, you can download the course structure PDF here Agricultural Science, Biochemistry, Botany, Chemistry, Computer Science, Electronic Systems, Environmental Geoscience,  Genetics,  Information Technology, Mathematics, Microbiology, Nanotechnology,  Physics,  Psychology, Statistics, Zoology
Course queries Current students: ASK La Trobe
Prospective students: Future Students
Notes  

Course description

The Bachelor of Science is a general degree program that provides students with flexibility to combine studies in their chosen areas of science (subject to satisfying the relevant prerequisites). After a broad first year of study, students may take major studies in any of these areas through to third year. Students who qualify for entry are eligible to proceed to an Honours year in their relevant area of science.  Areas of study available are:

Agricultural science Information technology
Biochemistry Mathematics
Botany Microbiology
Chemistry Nanotechnology
Computer science Physics
Electronic systems Psychology1
Environmental geoscience Statistics
Genetics Zoology

Note: 1 For a major in psychology please seek additional advice from the School of Psychological Science about professional qualifications in psychology.

Student exchange & overseas short programs

Student exchange and overseas short programs offer a unique opportunity for a meaningful learning and educational experience abroad.  La Trobe University encourages all students to make the world their campus by participating in an exchange or overseas short program that fits within your degree structure.  Student exchange and overseas short programs may also be eligible for a mobility grant.

Essentials subjects

The three Essentials - Global Citizenship, Innovation & Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Thinking are specialist areas designed to give you an edge with employers. Essentials will enable you to adapt your knowledge and skills to new contexts in a rapidly changing world. Subjects addressing the Essentials are part of all undergraduate La Trobe degrees and can be identified in the subject search by distinct icons. The list of approved subjects can be found on the Essentials webpage.

Course intended learning outcomes

Course Intended Learning Outcomes (CILOs) are brief statements defining what students are expected to demonstrate they know and can do by the end of a course.

Produce clear, concise, grammatically correct written work (eg scientific reports, essays, summaries) that present coherent evidence-based explanations to communicate appropriately to the intended audience (eg peers, scientifc community, non-scientific community.)
Conduct oral presentations that use correct terminology to communicate logically the results of scientific experiments, current scientific/discipline issues, or theoretical concepts to the intended audience (eg peers, scientific community, non-scientific community).
Utilise quantitative literacy skills and basic mathematical techniques to analyse and summarise numerical experimental data into tables and/or graphs; and evaluate data from sources such as scientific reports and journal articles.
Develop independent learning and research skills by locating, interrogating and evaluating relevant scientific information to generate scientific reports.
Develop rational and rigorous arguments to interrogate assumptions, synthesise scientific information, formulate hypotheses, draw unbiased conclusions and defend scientific ideas.
Analyse using a systematic approach to reasoning and conceptualising scientific ideas to solve constructed and real world scientific and technical problems.
Demonstrate effective teamwork in a range of roles using teambuilding, self-assessment and communication skills to complete tasks.
Employ academic integrity and scientific rigour in conducting and evaluating scientific research, and managing self in professional practice.
Use scientific terminology to discuss the fundamental concepts and current issues of the discipline and be able to apply relevant concepts to analyse and evaluate the results of investigations into real world problems.

Course structure

To qualify for the Bachelor of Science, students must complete subjects to the value of 360 credit points, normally 120 credit points at each of first-, second- and third-year levels. Up to a total of 120 credit points may be taken outside the college. Specific requirements for each year level are given below. Students must establish at least one major area of study in science by taking a sequence as outlined in requirements for majors below. Within these requirements, subject selection is limited only by timetable clashes, prerequisite and co-requisite needs, quotas and specific exclusions relating to incompatible subjects.

First year

First year (120 credit points)

Students choose subjects to the value of 90 credit points from science subjects, with the remaining 30 credit points selected from any first-year subjects offered by the University. Students must choose subjects at first-year level that will lead to the completion of a major area of study in science (60 credit points) at third-year level.

Students must include one of the following Quantitative Skills subjects listed below in the first year of their degree as part of the 90 credit points from science.
Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
TE-SEM-1 Number Systems and Linear Algebra MAT1NLA 15
TE-SEM-1 Introductory Calculus MAT1ICA 15
TE-SEM-1 Discrete Mathematics MAT1DM 15
TE-SEM-1 Principles of Physics A PHY1SCA 15
TE-SEM-1 Data Based Critical Thinking STA1DCT 15
TE-SEM-2 Calculus and Differential Equations MAT1CDE 15
TE-SEM-2 Mathematical Applications in Biology MAT1MAB 15
TE-SEM-2 Physics for Life Sciences PHY1LS 15
TE-SEM-2 Principles of Physics B PHY1SCB 15
TE-SEM-2 Statistical Science STA1SS 15
TE-SEM-2 Statistics for Life Sciences STA1LS 15
TE-SEM-2 Statistics for Psychology STA1PSY 15

Please note: LTU0AIM (Academic Integrity Module) (formerly SCI1AIM) is a not-for-credit subject that you are required to complete online at the commencement of your first semester. The subject is designed to enhance your knowledge and awareness of issues concerning academic integrity.

Please note: ABS0WOM is a not-for-credit subject that you are required to complete at the commencement of your first semester. The subject is designed to introduce students to Indigenous Australian perspectives, experiences, history, culture and customs.

Second year

Second year (120 credit points)

Students choose 60 credit points from selected science subjects. The remaining 60 credit points are selected from second-year science subjects or second-year subjects offered by the University for which prerequisites have been met.

Third year

Third year (120 credit points)

Students choose subjects to the value of 60 credit points in one of the areas of study, with the remaining 60 credit points selected from third-year science subjects or third-year subjects offered by the University for which prerequisites have been met.

 

Majors

Agricultural science major

Agricultural science major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Introduction to Animal and Agricultural Science AGR1AAS 15
TE-SEM-1 Molecules, Genes and Cells BIO1MGC 15
Students must enrol in either CHE1CHF or CHE1GEN
Students who have passed VCE Chemistry Units 3 & 4 (or equivalent), must enrol in CHE1GEN. All other students must enrol in CHE1CHF.
TE-SEM-1 Chemistry Foundations CHE1CHF 15
TE-SEM-1 General Principles of Chemistry CHE1GEN 15
TE-SEM-2 Statistics for Life Sciences STA1LS 15
Second year   Choose 30 credit points from the following list:    
TE-SEM-1 Introduction to Land and Soil Management AGR2ILS 15
TE-SEM-1 Plant and Pest Disease AGR2PPD 15
TE-SEM-1 Inner Life of Plants BOT2ILP 15
TE-SEM-2 Animal Nutrition AGR2AN 15
TE-SEM-2 Animal Physiology ZOO2AP 15
Third year   Choose 60 credit points from the following list in consultation with your course adviser.    
TE-SEM-1 Animal Health AGR3AH 30
TE-SEM-1 Agricultural Management Economics AGR3AME 15
TE-WK09-15 Commodity Risk Management AGR3CRM 15
TE-SEM-2 Agricultural and Animal Science Case Studies AGR3CS 30
TE-SEM-2 Land and Soil Management AGR3LS 15
TE-SEM-2 Agricultural Biotechnology BOT3ABT 15

Biochemistry major

Biochemistry major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year
Students must enrol in either CHE1CHF or CHE1GEN
Students who have passed VCE Chemistry Units 3 & 4 (or equivalent), must enrol in CHE1GEN. All other students must enrol in CHE1CHF.
TE-SEM-1 Chemistry Foundations CHE1CHF 15
TE-SEM-1 General Principles of Chemistry CHE1GEN 15
TE-SEM-1 Molecules, Genes and Cells BIO1MGC 15
TE-SEM-2 Applications of Chemistry CHE1APL 15
Second year TE-SEM-1 Introduction to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology BCH2IBM 15
TE-SEM-2 Metabolic Biochemistry and Cell Biology BCH2MBC 15
Third year TE-SEM-1 Advanced Analytical Biochemistry BCH3AAB 15
TE-SEM-1 Biochemistry and Systems Biology BCH3BSB 15
TE-SEM-2 Advanced Topics in Biochemistry and Cell Biology BCH3ATB 15
  Plus one of the following two subjects:    
TE-SEM-2 Advanced Biochemistry and Medical Biology Laboratory Course MED3LAB 15
TE-SEM-2 Advanced Biochemistry and Medical Biology Internship MED3PRJ 15

Botany major

Botany major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Molecules, Genes and Cells BIO1MGC 15
TE-SEM-2 Animal, Plant and Microbial Life BIO1APM 15
TE-SEM-2 Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity BIO1EEB 15
Second year TE-SEM-1 Inner Life of Plants BOT2ILP 15
TE-SEM-2 Plant Diversity and Ecology BOT2PDE 15
Third year   Choose 60 credit points of third year subjects from the list below:    
TE-SEM-SUM Geology and Plant Life Field Course ENV3GPL 15
TE-SEM-1 Quantitative Research Methods ENV3QRM 15
TE-SEM-1 Endangered Species Biology and Management ENV3ESB 15
TE-SEM-2 Animal Plant Interactions ENV3API 15
TE-SEM-2 Landscape Ecology and Conservation ENV3LEC 15
TE-SEM-2 Ecological Genetics and Evolution EEE3EGE 15
TE-SEM-2 Ecological Genetics and Evolution Research Project EEE3PRJ 15
TE-SEM-2 Agricultural Biotechnology BOT3ABT 15
TE-SEM-2 Plant Biotechnology BOT3PB 30

Chemistry major

Chemistry major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
 
Students must enrol in either CHE1CHF or CHE1GEN
Students who have passed VCE Chemistry Units 3 & 4 (or equivalent), must enrol in CHE1GEN. All other students must enrol in CHE1CHF.
First year TE-SEM-1 Chemistry Foundations CHE1CHF 15
TE-SEM-1 General Principles of Chemistry CHE1GEN 15
TE-SEM-2 Applications of Chemistry CHE1APL 15
  One Mathematics or Physics subject   15
Second year  TE-SEM-1 Fundamentals of Chemistry A CHE2FCA 15
TE-SEM-2 Fundamentals of Chemistry B CHE2FCB 15
  One of the following subjects:    
TE-SEM-1 Medicinal and Organic Chemistry CHE2MOC 15
TE-SEM-2 Forensic and Analytical Chemistry CHE2NAC 15
Third year TE-SEM-1 Advanced Chemistry A CHE3ADA 30
TE-SEM-2 Advanced Chemistry B CHE3ADB 30

Computer science major

Computer science major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Number Systems and Linear Algebra MAT1NLA 15
TE-SEM-1 Object-Oriented Programming Fundamentals CSE1OOF 15
TE-SEM-1 Discrete Mathematics MAT1DM 15
TE-SEM-2 Intermediate Object-Oriented Programming CSE1IOO 15
TE-SEM-2 Algebra, Linear Codes and Automata MAT2ALC 15
TE-SEM-2 Object-Oriented Programming Using C++ CSE1CPP 15
Second year TE-SEM-1 or TE-SEM-2 Algorithms and Data Structures CSE2ALG 15
TE-SEM-2 System Design Engineering Fundamentals CSE2DES 15
  Second Year Level Computer Science subject   15
Third year TE-SEM-1 System Design and Methodologies CSE3SDM 15
  Third Year Level Computer Science subject   15
 TE-SEM-1 Industry Project 3A  CSE3PRA  15
 TE-SEM-2 Industry Project 3B  CSE3PRB 15

Electronic systems major

Electronics major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Engineering Design and Problem Solving EMS1EDP 15
TE-SEM-2 Introduction to Electrical and Electronic Engineering ELE1IEL 15
TE-SEM-2 Mechanics of Solids EMS1MS 15
  To progress to second and third year the following subjects should be completed MAT1NLA and MAT1CDE    
  The following elective subjects are recommended for students undertaking this major CSE1PES or EMS1CAD    
Second year TE-SEM-2 Systems Modelling EMS2SYM 15
TE-SEM-2 Sustainability and Renewable Energy Design EMS2SRE 15
  The following elective subjects are recommended for students undertaking this major MAT2VCA and EMS2EM    
Third year TE-SEM-1 Digital Electronics and Controllers ELE3DEC 15
TE-SEM-1 Measurement and Instrumentation ELE3MIN 15
TE-SEM-2 Systems Engineering EMS3SYE 15
  The following elective subjects are recommended for students undertaking this major ELE3CTS and EMS3DPJ    

Environmental geoscience major

Environmental geoscience major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
 
Students must enrol in either CHE1CHF or CHE1GEN
Students who have passed VCE Chemistry Units 3 & 4 (or equivalent), must enrol in CHE1GEN. All other students must enrol in CHE1CHF.
First year TE-SEM-1 Chemistry Foundations CHE1CHF 15
TE-SEM-1 General Principles of Chemistry CHE1GEN 15
TE-SEM-1 Processes that Shape the Earth GEO1PRO 15
  Recommended elective    
TE-SEM-2 Applications of Chemistry CHE1APL 15
Second year TE-SEM-1 Introduction to Land and Soil AGR2ILS 15
TE-SEM-2 Remote Sensing and GIS ENV2REM 15
Third year TE-SEM-1 Climate Change and Landscape Evolution ENV3EGL 15
 TE-SEM-1 Groundwater - Sustainability and Contamination ENV3EGW  15
 TE-SEM-2 Land and Soil Management AGR3LS 15

Genetics major

Genetics major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Molecules, Genes and Cells BIO1MGC 15
TE-SEM-2 Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity BIO1EEB 15
Second year TE-SEM-1 Ecological Genetics and Evolution GEN2EGE 15
TE-SEM-2 Molecular and Human Genetics GEN2MHG 15
Third year TE-SEM-1 Human & Molecular Genetics GEN3HMG 30
TE-SEM-2 Ecological Genetics and Evolution EEE3EGE 15
TE-SEM-2 Ecological Genetics and Evolution Research Project EEE3PRJ 15

Information technology major

Information technology major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Discrete Mathematics MAT1DM 15
TE-SEM-1 Programming Environment CSE1PE 15
TE-SEM-2 Object Oriented Programming Fundamentals CSE1OOF 15
Second year TE-SEM-1 Database Fundamentals CSE2DBF 15
TE-SEM-2 System Design Engineering Fundamentals CSE2DES 15
TE-SEM-1 / TE-SEM-2 One Second Year Level Information Technology subject CSE2... 15
Third year TE-SEM-1 Industry Project A CSE3PRA 15
TE-SEM-2 Industry Project B CSE3PRB 15
TE-SEM-1 / TE-SEM-2 Two Third Year Level Information Technology subjects CSE3... 30

Mathematics major

Mathematics major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Number Systems and Linear Algebra MAT1NLA 15
TE-SEM-2 Calculus and Differential Equations MAT1CDE 15
Second year   Choose 45 credit points from the following list in consultation with your course adviser.    
TE-SEM-1 Vector Calculus MAT2VCA 15
TE-SEM-1 Analysis of Real Numbers and Functions MAT2ANA 15
TE-SEM-2 Linear Algebra MAT2LAL 15
TE-SEM-2 Mechanics MAT2MEC 15
TE-SEM-2 Probability Models STM2PM 15
TE-SEM-2 Algebra, Linear Codes and Automata MAT2ALC 15
Third year   Choose 60 credit points from the following list in consultation with your course adviser.   60
TE-SEM-1 Computation and Simulation STM3CS 15
TE-SEM-1 Complex Analysis MAT3CZ 15
TE-SEM-2 Linear Programming and Probability STM3LPP 15
TE-SEM-2 Advanced Calculus and Curvature MAT3AC 15
TE-SEM-2 Discrete Structures and Algorithms MAT3DSA 15

Note: Not all third-year subjects may be available in all years.

Microbiology major

Microbiology major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Molecules, Genes and Cells BIO1MGC 15
TE-SEM-2 Animal, Plant and Microbial Life BIO1APM 15
Second year TE-SEM-1 Introductory Microbiology MIC2MI 15
TE-SEM-2 Medical and Veterinary Microbiology MIC2MMV 15
Third year TE-SEM-1 Advanced Medical and Veterinary Microbiology MIC3AMM 30
TE-SEM-2 Advanced Microbiology MIC3AM 30

Nanotechnology major

Nanotechnology major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Principles of Physics A PHY1SCA 15
TE-SEM-2 Principles of Physics B PHY1SCB 15
TE-SEM-2 Introduction to Nanoscience NAN1NAN 15
Second year TE-SEM-2 Nanomaterials Characterisation PHY2MAC 15
TE-SEM-2 Modern Physics PHY2MOD 15
Third year TE-SEM-1 Synchrotron Science and Technology PHY3SYN 15
TE-SEM-1 Nanomaterials and Fabrication PHY3NMF 15
TE-SEM-2 Senior Physics Laboratory PHY3LAB 15

Physics major

Physics major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Principles of Physics A PHY1SCA 15
TE-SEM-2 Principles of Physics B PHY1SCB 15
  To progress to second year the following subjects should be completed MAT1NLA and MAT1CDE    
Second year TE-SEM-1 Classical Physics PHY2CLP 15
TE-SEM-2 Modern Physics PHY2MOD 15
  To progress to third year the following subjects should be completed MAT2VCA, MAT2LAL and MAT2MEC    
Third year TE-SEM-1 Physics of Quantum Matter PHY3PQM 15
TE-SEM-1 Quantum Physics PHY3QMO 15
TE-SEM-2 Electrodynamics PHY3EPP 15
TE-SEM-2 Senior Physics Laboratory PHY3LAB 15

Psychology major

Psychology major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Experimental Foundations of Psychological Science PSY1EFP 15
TE-SEM-2 Clinical Foundations of Psychological Science PSY1CFP 15
Second year   At least two of the following subjects:    
TE-SEM-1 Cognition PSY2COG 15
TE-SEM-2 Developmental Psychology PSY2DEV 15
TE-SEM-2 Social Psychology PSY2SOC 15
TE-SEM-2 Abnormal, Clinical and Health Psychology PSY2ACH 15
Third year TE-SEM-1 Psychological Assessment PSY3PAS 15
TE-SEM-2 Psychological Interventions PSY3PIN 15
  Students will need to select one additional 15cp psychology subject at either second or third year   15
  And, choose one of the following subjects:    
TE-SEM-1 Neural Bases of Consciousness PSY3NBC 15
TE-SEM-1 Clinical Neuroscience and Neuropsychology PSY3CNN 15
TE-SEM-1 Close Relationships: Theory and Practice PSY3RTP 15
TE-SEM-1 Psychology of Human-Animal Relationships PSY3HAR 15
TE-SEM-2 Psychology of Culture, Communities and Global Citizenship PSY3CCG 15
TE-SEM-2 Understanding and Treating Autism Spectrum Disorders PSY3ASD 15

For a major in psychology please seek additional advice from the School of Psychology and Public Health about professional qualifications in psychology.

Statistics major

Statistics major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year   One of the following subjects:    
TE-SEM-1 Number Systems and Linear Algebra MAT1NLA 15
TE-SEM-1 Discrete Mathematics MAT1DM 15
TE-SEM-1 Experimental Foundations of Psychological Science PSY1EFP 15
TE-SEM-1 Data-based Critical Thinking STA1DCT 15
TE-SEM-2 Calculus and Differential Equations MAT1CDE 15
TE-SEM-2 Mathematical Applications for Biology MAT1MAB 15
  One of the following four first-year level subjects:    
TE-SEM-2 Statistical Science STA1SS 15
TE-SEM-2 Statistics for Life Sciences STA1LS 15
TE-SEM-2 Calculus and Differential Equations MAT1CDE 15
TE-SEM-2 Statistics for Psychology STA1PSY 15
Second year TE-SEM-2 Probability Models STM2PM 15
  And one of the following second-year level subjects:    
TE-SEM-1 Applied Biostatistics STA2ABS 15
TE-SEM-1 Applied Medical Statistics STA2AMS 15
TE-SEM-1 Vector Calculus MAT2VCA 15
TE-SEM-1 Analysis of Real Numbers and Functions MAT2ANA 15
TE-SEM-2 Algebra, Linear Codes and Automata MAT2ALC 15
TE-SEM-2 Linear Algebra MAT2LAL 15
TE-SEM-2 Mechanics MAT2MEC 15
TE-SEM-2 Biostatistics STA2BS 15
Third year TE-SEM-1 Statistical Inference STM3SI 15
TE-SEM-2 Analyses of Linear Models STA3LM 15
TE-SEM-2 Applied Statistics STA3AS 15
  One of the following third-year subjects:    
  TE-SEM-1 Complex Analysis MAT3CZ 15
  TE-SEM-1 Computation and Simulation STM3CS 15
  TE-SEM-2 Discrete Structures and Algorithms MAT3DSA 15
  TE-SEM-2 Linear Programming and Probability STM3LPP 15
  TE-SEM-2 Biostatistics STA3BS 15
  TE-SEM-2 Advanced Calculus and Curvature MAT3AC 15

Zoology major

Zoology major
Year level Teaching period Subject name Subject code Credit points
First year TE-SEM-1 Molecules, Genes and Cells BIO1MGC 15
TE-SEM-2 Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity BIO1EEB 15
TE-SEM-2 Animal, Plant and Microbial Life BIO1APM 15
  And one of the following:    
  Any year 12 mathematics    
TE-SEM-1 Data-Based Critical Thinking STA1DCT 15
TE-SEM-2 Statistics for Life Sciences STA1LS 15
TE-SEM-2 Mathematical Applications in Biology MAT1MAB 15
Second year TE-SEM-1 Practice of Science BIO2POS 15
  And one of the following second-year level zoology subjects:    
TE-SEM-1 Australian Fauna and Ecology ZOO2FE 15
TE-SEM-2 Animal Physiology ZOO2AP 15
Third year   Choose 60 credit points of third year subjects from the list below:    
TE-SEM-SUM Mountain Ecosystems Field Course B ENV3ME 15
TE-SEM-SUM Heron Island Field Course ZOO3HIF 15
TE-SEM-1 Animal Behaviour EEE3ANB 15
TE-SEM-1 Quantitative Research Methods ENV3QRM 15
TE-SEM-1 Endangered Species Biology and Management ENV3ESB 15
TE-SEM-1 Mallee Field Course ENV3MFC 15
TE-SEM-2 Animal Plant Interactions ENV3API 15
TE-SEM-2 Landscape Ecology and Conservation ENV3LEC 15
TE-SEM-2 Ecological Genetics and Evolution EEE3EGE 15
TE-SEM-2 Ecological Genetics and Evolution Research Project EEE3PRJ 15
TE-SEM-2 Animal Reproduction EEE3ANR 15
TE-SEM-2 Animals Active and Asleep EEE3AAA 15
TE-SEM-WIN Arid Ecosystem Conservation Field Course ENV3AEC 15

Please note: Some of these subjects may not be offered in the current year. For a full description of subjects, including the subject name, subject code, credit points, campus/location, teaching period and availability, subject coordinator, class requirements, assessment, prerequisites and readings, please click on the appropriate subject code.

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