Postgrad Students in EEE
Physiological mechanisms underlying fish distributions along altitudinal gradients; testing for thermal adaptation.
In Australia we have an extremely poor understanding of the thermal ecology of our freshwater fishes. This is particularly problematic for environmental managers who require a predictive understanding of how altered thermal regimes—due to climate change, drought and riparian clearing—will affect fish biodiversity. Slade’s project investigates the mechanisms driving altitudinal distributions in two species of fish: the river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) and two-spined blackfish (G. bispinosus). This project will meld descriptive studies in streams of North-East Victoria with metabolic experiments to improve our understanding of how changing thermal regimes will affect the fitness of these two species.
The ecology, life history and thermal biology of the Guthega Skink, Liopholis guthega, from two geographically isolated alpine environments
Zak studies the nationally endangered alpine endemic lizard the Guthega Skink which occurs above 1600 m in Kosciuszko National Park in New South Wales, and the Bogong High Plains in Victoria. This species’ extremely limited and highly fragmented distribution is further threatened by climate change, tourism and fire. Zak's research will investigate the ecology and life history of L. guthega in order to better understand its thermal and habitat requirements, and reproductive and dispersal capabilities. It will hopefully aid in the conservation and future persistence of this species in the wild.
Animal behaviour through a virtual lens
Xue’s project will utilize a multifaceted strategy to study motion displays of Australia’s Agamid lizards, providing an exciting opportunity to study how animal signals have evolved to be effective in the environment in which they are emitted. This study will take knowledge and data from nature into a virtual 3D animation laboratory to reconstruct realistic microhabitats, simulate environmental conditions, and systematically manipulate the scenes allowing the consideration of circumstances influencing signal effectiveness in unprecedented details. Experimenting with virtual habitats offers exciting opportunities for answering questions about motion signalling that would be impractical in nature.
The functional significance of ant colouration
Ants are of immense ecological importance and can be strikingly colourful, ranging from diaphanous yellows to intense reds. James is exploring the colour diversification of ants from a functional perspective in order to identify associations between colour traits and the environment. This will be achieved through a broad variety of approaches including field comparisons, behavioural trials, manipulative experiments, ultrastructural investigations, and visual modelling. This novel approach will potentially enable the development and application of colour-related traits in trait-based ecological studies, as well as contributing to our understanding of animal colouration more generally.
Fire and rain – investigating how major ecological drivers shape a semi-arid bird community over space and time
Worldwide, fire is increasingly used as a management tool to reduce the risk of wildfire, by reducing fuel loads, and to conserve and promote biodiversity, by burning to protect or generate habitat for fire-sensitive biota. It is of high importance that we enhance our knowledge of how species’ persistence, distributions and dynamics are impacted by fire and the application of prescribed burning, major climatic patterns, and the interactions between these drivers. My research project seeks to understand the effects of such disturbance patterns on the long-term fluctuations in abundance and spatial distribution of a bird community, including a focus on its threatened and declining members, in a fire-prone mallee region of north-west Victoria.
Cascading effects of the native fossorial critical weight range mammals on soil ecology and function
The burrowing and foraging activity of fossorial mammals is crucial in ecosystem functioning, such as nutrient distribution and seed dispersal. The extinction of burrowing mammals might have a huge impact on soil processes and nutrient cycles. Orsi’s project seeks to understand the terrestrial world below ground and the big picture of ecosystem functioning shaped by direct and indirect trophic interactions between fossorial mammals, invertebrates and soil properties. Her research is based on large-scale replicated exclusion experiments across arid Australia where ecologically extinct fossorial mammals such as bettongs and bilbies have been reintroduced.
Overabundance of a native, iconic vertebrate: Cascading ecological effects and public perception on management of koalas.
Margreet is investigating cascading ecological effects of Eucalypt tree dieback caused by overabundant koalas in south-eastern Australia. By focussing on possible changes in vegetation composition she will improve our understanding of how over-browsing by koalas can impact an area in different ways. In addition, using questionnaires, she will map public perception on possible management strategies to reduce the impact of overabundant koalas. Margreet aims to obtain a comprehensive and updated view of public perception in a long-lasting discussion.
Managing the Natural Grasslands of the Murray Valley Plains for conservation of native biodiversity.
Daniel is investigating processes which drive a) biomass, and b) vegetation community development, and thus habitat provision for native animals, in the Natural Grasslands of the Murray Valley Plains of Victoria. This nationally Critically Endangered vegetation community is vital to the survival of many rare and endangered plant and animal species, but has almost been extirpated in Australia through agricultural practice. Remaining high quality examples are fragmented and limited in extent. I seek to understand how and when management inputs such as grazing or burning might drive the system towards configurations which best secure threatened biota.
Supervisors: Dr John Morgan, Dr Nick Schultz (Federation University), Dr Nathan Wong (Trust for Nature)
Callococcus leptospermi and other endemic insects as potential biological control agents for Leptospermum laevigatum in South Africa.
Leptospermum laevigatum (Myrtaceae) is a native Australian woody shrub species that was introduced into South Africa in the 1830s and is now considered highly invasive. It alters habitats by forming monocultures and reducing native plant and animal diversity. Previous attempts to control L. laevigatum have been confounded by the costs of chemical control and extensive regrowth following mechanical removal. My project is aimed at determining the prospects for biological control of L. laevigatum. Of the phytophagous insects that have been associated with L. laevigatum the gall-inducing scale insect Callococcus leptospermi (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) has been suggested as a biological control agent. C. leptospermi induces stem-swelling galls on species of Leptospermum resulting in die-back of the plant. My project will examine the genetics and biology of L. laevigatum and the associated scale insect.
Supervisors: Assoc. Prof. Martin Steinbauer and Dr. Candice Lee-Lyons
Managed Aquifer Recharge - Risks of injection clogging using recycled water in a confined alluvial aquifer
Attlila's research focuses on Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), which involves a range of methods to recharge water underground such as infiltration basins and injection wells, with important applications in sustainable use and management of natural resources. Although the techniques are well established, the technology is not without its operational problems, one of the most common being the decline of recharge capacity over time due to clogging. The study uses drilling samples, groundwater and recycled water from a MAR scheme in the Melbourne area, as well as other reference samples to provide insights into how clogging may affect MAR schemes.
Application of 3D hydrogeology methods to groundwater resource management.
Bruce is studying groundwater resource management. Also a research hydrogeologist with the Victorian Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Bruce's study is looking into how 3D mapping and visualisation of important groundwater supply systems can help groundwater resource users and managers improve groundwater resource management.
Going through hell: The drivers of detritivore recovery after fire
Joshua’s project aims to understand how species from four detritivorous taxa (Diplopoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, Lepidoptera) recover following forest fires. Fire adversely impacts detritivores which, as essential contributors to decomposition reduce fuel build-up. Fire occurrence and severity therefore depends on the functioning of the detritivore community. Joshua's project centres on three aspects of detritovore recovery: 1) in-situ survival 2) survival in the post-fire environment and 3) recolonisation. He expects to identify ecological factors important in recovery and that these results will have potential to inform fire management regarding the likely impacts of fire regimes on detritivores.
The role of vegetated linear networks for fauna conservation within agricultural environments
Mark studies agricultural landscapes and the habitat features that influence the species richness and composition of woodland bird and native bee communities. The focus of his PhD research is on linear strips of vegetation (roadsides and streams) and scattered paddock trees, and tests their importance as habitat and areas for foraging and breeding. The results of this study will answer important ecological questions and assist land managers in better targeting management actions to improve site suitability for woodland birds and native bees within heavily modified environments.
Hydrological and vegetation controls upon the Ovens River, southeast Victoria.
Clayton’s project focuses on terrestrially aged Eucalyptus camaldulensis (River red gum) leaves as a source of bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), which he believes has the capacity to act as a valuable nutrient source to in-stream processes, but has received limited attention in the past. After investigating proteins and amino acids from Eucalyptus leaves as a DON source, Clayton has now begun to examine fungi as both a source and for catalyst for the release of DON. He hopes that his work will contribute to a greater understanding of freshwater nutrient cycles and food-web dynamics within both floodplain and riverine environments.
Beyond the fringe: temporal and spatial change in peri-urban land-use and avian communities.
The term ‘peri-urban’ is used to describe a transitional zone between urbanised centres and rural land. Worldwide, peri-urban development is one of the fastest growing forms of private land-use. As these developments occur among, or in close proximity to, natural habitats, they can impact native species distributions and community composition. Despite this, little is known of the potential ecological consequences of such development, especially in Australia. Jacinta’s project aims to quantify the effect of peri-urban development on native wildlife. As a case study, she will investigate the past and present change in peri-urban land-use and avian communities around greater Melbourne
Supervisors: Professor Andrew Bennett and Dr Angie Haslem.
Influence of ontogenetic and environmental factors on the abundance and composition of tannins in Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves
Tannins are secondary metabolites found in almost all plants. They have a range of functions, e.g. defence (against herbivores, microbes, viruses and competing plants), signalling (attraction of pollinating or seed dispersing animals) and photoprotection (limit damage of photosynthetic apparatus by ultraviolet radiation). The photoprotection hypothesis is controversial because there is a paucity of empirical evidence to counter the widely accepted anti-herbivory explanation. This is especially true for Eucalyptus in which tannins are commonly cited as providing defence against insect and vertebrate herbivores. Using HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of glasshouse- and field-grown leaves, I will investigate the putative photoprotective role of tannins in all seven subspecies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (River red gum). I will relate differences in tannin composition to the distribution of the species across the Australian continent.
Supervisors & collaborator: Assoc. Prof. Martin Steinbauer, Dr Ian Potter (Department of Chemistry and Physics), Dr Simone Rochfort (AgriBio) and Prof. Juha-Pekka Salminen (University of Turku, Finland).
The role of the Superb Lyrebird (Menura novaehollandiae) as a forest ecosystem engineer
Alex has been interested in Lyrebirds for over 15 years. His PhD project is aimed at determining the ecosystem engineering role of this soil-displacing songster, and the way in which they utilise (and thus modify) Australia’s south-eastern forests. Whilst working with this charismatic species, he hopes to develop techniques and understanding applicable to other forest systems where engineers play important roles in ecosystem function.
Supervisor: Prof. Andrew Bennett
Host plant specificity of Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and potential to use plant volatiles for monitoring.
The small galling wasp (Leptocybe invasa) has spread to 30 countries around the world where eucalypts are grown and become a serious pest; it is perhaps Australia’s most successful insect invader. My Australia Awards for Africa project (funded by AusAID) seeks to explain a component of the wasp’s invasion biology, namely its selection and utilisation of eucalypts. I will determine whether female wasps use olfactory cues to find hosts and whether plant secondary metabolites and foliar physical characteristics affect gall development/larval survival. Much of my field and lab work is being conducted in Kenya (at the Kenyan Forestry Research Institute) to provide applied outcomes relevant to an African context.
Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Martin Steinbauer
Managing fire, flora and fauna – how does fire drive species distributions?
Fire is a driver of change in ecosystems throughout the world. As the interface between human settlement and wild lands increases, and with the changing climate predicted to cause more frequent and severe wildfires, there is the increasing need to manage the landscape for the consequences of fire. But fire affects species and, consequently, ecosystems differently depending on their fire-response strategy and the environmental context. For fire management to achieve conservation outcomes, we must understand these nuances. Using ecological modelling tools and a combination of historical records and field studies, my research aims to further our understanding of how fire, climate and the environment drive the distributions of plant and animal species in some of the world’s most fire-prone ecosystems.
Supervisor: Prof. Andrew Bennett
Remote Sensing evapotransiration in Blue Gum plantations
Rakhshan is modelling for remote sensing evapotranspiration estimate to constrain groundwater contributions to catchment water balances in western Victoria. Evapotranspiration is an essential component of the hydrological balance. For field measurements of ET, various techniques are used. Although point data can be extrapolated, the reliability over large areas is uncertain. To overcome this limitation, a Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Rainfed Agriculture (SEBARA) is developed and the satellite data, at a spatial resolution of 30 x 30m, is used to estimate the spatial pattern of evapotranspiration.
Extensive blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations have been established in SW Victoria which have impacted the groundwater resources. Her project will help to understand the impact of land use shift on the available water resources.
Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. John Webb
Rural landscapes of change: The effect of land-use on birds of the western Strzelecki Ranges
I am interested in global patterns of rural landscape change and how birds respond to new ecosystems that are developing within these shifting landscapes. My PhD research is currently investigating how different types of land activities influence the bird community in agricultural hill country. This research aims to inform the development of future land management strategies and provide insights for understanding and enhancing this important component of rural biodiversity.
Supervisors: Prof. Andrew Bennett, Dr. Greg Holland, Dr. Angie Haslem
Controlling acid mine drainage with cements
Michael is investigating the potential of using cement slurries to control acid mine drainage production using leaching column experiments. Acid mine drainage is a form of water pollution caused by oxidation of sulphide minerals exposed to the atmosphere by mining, producing sulphuric acid and releasing heavy metals into surface and ground waters. Cement slurries can be used to coat the rocks with cement, which can neutralise the acid drainage in situ, improving water quality in the short term, whilst also reducing the rates of sulphide oxidation, which may control the longer term effects of the cement application.
Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. John Webb
Assessment of eucalypts by Glycaspis species of psyllid: quantifying the roles of phytochemical and physical traits on host acceptance
Lerp-forming psyllids in the megadiverse genus Glycaspis (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) are important components of Australia’s biodiversity but one in particular (Glycaspis brimblecombei) is also an economically important pest overseas. My project will focus on G. brimblecombei and Glycaspis sp. n. ex. Eucalyptus leucoxylon which differ in host breadth, i.e. G. brimblecombei is oligophagous (in Australia it has been recorded from seven species and from E. tereticornis in Uruguay) while Glycaspis sp. n. is apparently monophagous (recorded from E. leucoxylon on which it co-occurs with G. brimblecombei). These two species provide an opportunity to investigate how psyllid adaptations to plant secondary compounds and foliar physical characteristics have been associated with changes in host breadth within Glycaspis. My project will address interactions potentially linked to host shifts and divergence of psyllids on Eucalyptus.
Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Martin Steinbauer
Melissa Van De Wetering
‘The little things that run the world’: The effects of large-scale dominant ant suppression on ecosystem function in Australia’s seasonal tropics.
Ants are numerically and behaviourally dominant organisms that contribute to many ecological processes. Yet despite their ubiquity in terrestrial environments, the extent of their functional contribution is poorly understood. Ant communities can be structured by dominance hierarchies where ecologically dominant species often represent a disproportionally high fraction of total ant biomass. My project aims to investigate the role of ants in a range of ecological functions, including trophic interactions and ant-plant mutualisms, by experimentally suppressing dominant ant species. This will provide insights into the disproportional functional contribution of key species, the potential for ecological redundancy and the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem functioning.
Campbell Van Praagh
The White Hills Gravel throughout Central Victoria
The White Hills Gravel is an Early Tertiary fluvial gravel, deposited some 55 – 68 million years ago, that is preserved as remnants throughout much of northwestern and north-central Victoria. The distribution and properties of these river gravels suggest that they were deposited during high-energy chaotic floods that affected a large area across Victoria. Campbell’s research aims to improve upon the previous mapping of the White Hills Gravel across these areas, and reconstruct the likely pathways of the ancient rivers that deposited them. Campbell will also interpret aspects of the Early Tertiary landscape and climate of Victoria through analysis of the gravels, and endeavour to identify less-prominent faults within the landscape that may have been missed within previous geological mapping. The project involves a significant component of field work, and the use of GIS software to store and analyse the collected data.
Supervisors: Assoc. Prof. John Webb, Dr Susan White
How does a dispersal-limited bird persist in a shifting and fragmented landscape?
The mallee emu-wren Stipiturus mallee is the epitome of the Aussie battler. It weighs barely five grams, it considers ten metres a long flight, and it resides in some of the world’s most flammable vegetation. Like many Australians, the mallee emu-wren is trapped by a paradoxical relationship with fire. It requires fire to create new habitat, yet fire is a major contributor to local extinctions of this species. It is a poor disperser, yet its habitat is intrinsically fragmented. Simon uses long-term distribution data and ecological modelling to aid him in his investigations into the ecology of this fascinating species.
Supervisor: Prof. Mike Clarke
Reproductive sleeplessness in dasyurid marsupials
Sleep is a prominent part of animal life, but our understanding of the adaptive value of sleep remains incomplete. Even though it is generally accepted that reduced performance is an evolutionary outcome of sleeplessness, some animals may perform well on little sleep when ecological demands favour extended periods of wakefulness. My project examines the activity patterns of dasyurid marsupials in lab-based and semi-wild environments, and quantifies the concentration of various hormones that may predict activity levels. Furthermore, to provide insight into sleep evolution and function, my research seeks to determine whether the most active males sire more offspring.
Supervisor: Dr John Lesku
Two decades of vegetation change across a critically endangered temperate grassland ecosystem
Ben’s PhD is exploring how changes to historic disturbance regimes, nitrogen deposition and habitat fragmentation as a consequence of urbanisation can lead to biotic homogenisation among native vegetation communities. This research is being conducted in critically endangered native grasslands on the Victorian volcanic plain, an ecosystem that has been extensively cleared since European settlement. Ben is examining how long-term differences in the management of urban and rural grasslands have affected the patterns of native species extinction and exotic species invasion as well as exploring potential actions to reverse native grassland degradation.
Supervisor: Dr John Morgan